Inspection, Evaluation and Repair of Process Plant Equipment and Connected Piping

Created by LEC Team
Last updated Mon, 27-Mar-2023
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The layout and also fabrication of process devices as well as piping systems are accomplished by market codes and standards. Manufacture, as well as welding procedures, undergo defined examinations and inspections to make sure that any kind of shortage found is solved to fulfil the acceptance criteria of the corresponding codes.

Once the new tools and piping are put in service, they get subjected to the process liquids and also begin to undergo degeneration such as corrosion at different rates relying on the products of construction and also service problems. It is consequently important to know their existing problem as well as the degradation rate to make sure that appropriate repair work and also upkeep can be executed promptly to stop failures. Efficient assessment and evaluation of the examination information are vital for this purpose. The honesty of the plant can not be achieved without efficient examination.

Regular and also trusted assessments are an integral part of any type of effective plant upkeep program. The success of such a program counts significantly on the Non-Destructive Assessment (NDT or NDE or NDI) methods used. Non-destructive inspection (NDT) techniques find imperfections that can trigger possible failure in the future. In this manner, NDT supplies information on the stability of the pipeline along with a step of its present safety margin. Thus, it is necessary to recognize the extent as well as restrictions of the typical and also advanced NDE devices that are offered to optimize the effectiveness of each of the scheduled inspection tasks.

In addition, in today's affordable environment plant drivers need to lower upkeep costs by minimizing downtime. Reliable examination adds dramatically to this objective

Program Goals of Inspection, Examination, as well as Fixing of Process Plant Tools as well as Connected Piping


  • Recognize the damage and degradation devices that impact procedure tools as well as piping and also gradually detrimentally impact their problem and health and fitness for a continued solution.
  • Understand that efficient inspection is the backbone of plant stability and that it has a significant impact on EHS and the financial performance of the company
  • Boost the awareness of industry codes and ideal techniques related to evaluation, repair work, and also change of procedure tools and also piping consisting of ASME BPVC and various API codes, requirements, as well as advised methods.
  • Give a noise as well as succinct insurance coverage of fitness-for-service analysis approaches as well as API/ASME FFS criteria to enable making run/repair/replace decisions about the damaged equipment/piping
  • Cover the main sector codes and also techniques for repairs and changes to accomplish focused service repairs as well as lower upkeep prices
  • Offer approaches for doing fitness-for-service assessments of harmed equipment/piping to make the run/repair/replace choices


Day 1
Inspection of the Backbone of Plant Integrity

  • Significance of inspection throughout the life cycle

  • Inspection – Why? What? Where? How? When?

  • The real function of inspection

  • Regulatory requirements

  • Impact on plant integrity, safety, reliability, and business performance

  • Inspection and the construction codes

  • Manufacturing, fabrication, and repair/alteration deficiencies

  • QA/QC requirements in fabrication and welding

  • ASME BPVC requirements – Examination vs. an inspection

  • ASME Code Case 2235-3 for Use of Ultrasonic Examination instead of Radiography

  • Fraudulent/substandard materials in code construction

  • Degradation and damage mechanisms affecting pressure equipment and piping

  • Overview of API 571- Damage Mechanisms Affecting Fixed Equipment in the Refining Industry



Day 9
Repair and Alteration of Process Equipment and Piping

  • Repair codes, standards, and best practices – API 510, 570, 653

  • API 578 Positive material identification (PMI)

  • Post-Construction Codes – Overview of ASME PCC-2

  • Repairs and Modifications

  • Temporary and Permanent Repairs

  • Welded Repairs – ASME BPVC IX



Day 8
Corrosion Rate calculations

  • Remaining Life Calculations

  • Fitness-for-service (FFS) assessment and remaining life determination

  • Fundamentals and industry practices

  • Overview of API Std 579-1/ASME FFS-1

  • Inspection, Maintenance, and Repair (IMR) Plan

  • Appropriate mitigation activities



Day 7
Evaluation and Analysis of Inspection Data

  • Inspection data verification and evaluation

  • Data Completeness

  • Data quality

  • Data Management and Risk Assessment

  • Inspection Data Management System (IDMS)

  • Software System for Managing and Assessing Inspection Data

  • Reliable assessment of damages



Day 6
Piping and components inspection

  • API 574 - Inspection Practices for Piping System Components

  • API 570 - Piping Inspection Code: In-service Inspection, Repair, and Alteration of Piping Systems

  • Pressure-relieving devices – Code and regulatory requirements and best practices

  • API RP 576 - Inspection of Pressure-Relieving Devices

  • Pressure testing – Code requirements and best practices

  • Hydrostatic testing

  • Pneumatic testing

  • API Standard 936 – Refractory Installation Quality Control Guidelines - Inspection and Testing Monolithic Refractory Linings and Materials

  • API Inspector Certification



Day 5
Inspection Codes Standards and Best Practices

  • Pressure vessel inspection - API 572, API 510

  • Fired boilers and heaters inspection

  • API 573 – Inspection of Fired Boilers and Heaters

  • ABSA AB 507 – Guidelines for the Inspection of Installed fired Heaters

  • FTIS -Furnace tube inspection system (Quest TruTec)

  • Inspection of Heat Exchanger, Condenser & Fin Fan Coolers Tubes

  • Aboveground storage tanks inspection

  • ANSI/API RP 575 - Guidelines and Methods for Inspection of Existing Atmospheric and Low-pressure Storage Tanks, Second Edition

  • STI SP001- Standard for Inspection of Aboveground Storage Tanks

  • API 653 - Tanks Inspection, Repair, Alteration, and Reconstruction

  • API 12R1, Setting, Maintenance, Inspection, Operation, and Repair of Tanks in Production Service



Day 4
Fundamentals and benefits

  • Overview of API RP 580 - Risk-Based Inspection

  • Overview of API RP 581 - Risk-Based Inspection Technology

  • Non-destructive testing (NDT)

  • Highlights of main NDT methods and their application

  • Overview of ASME BPVC Section V – Nondestructive Examination

  • Advanced Inspection Techniques and best practices

  • Guided Wave Ultrasonic Long Range Inspection

  • Advanced Phased Array for weld inspection

  • On-line monitoring - Sensors typically used are strain gauges, thermocouples, displacement transducers, and pressure transducers.



Day 3
Inspection Strategies, Plans, Methods, and Techniques

  • Inspection Strategies and Systems

  • External and internal inspections – limitations, costs, and benefits

  • Inspection plans and procedures

  • Statutory requirements

  • Risk-based inspection (RBI)



Day 2
Areas of vulnerability in petroleum refineries

  • Injection points

  • Corrosion under insulation (CUI)

  • Soil-to-air interface

  • The integrity of structures and supports

  • In-service inspection – the big picture

  • Non Intrusive Inspections

  • Shutdown inspections

  • Inspector qualification and competence

  • API inspector certification

  • API Body of Knowledge



Day 10
Mechanical Repairs
  • Specialized Repair Methods - Composites

  • Hot tapping and line stops – Key Considerations, Practices, and Procedures

  • API 2201 – Safe Hot Tapping Practices in the Petroleum & Petrochemical Industries

  • Rerating

  • Assessing the Need for Rerating

  • Minimum Required Thickness Determination

  • MAWP Determination

  • Authorization and Registration


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